Forming / Joining / Inclusion
- Define / establish structure and boundaries
- Make expectations explicit and clear
- Clarify group’s purpose
- Clarify operating procedures and policies
- Reinforce members who conform
- Assist people in getting acquainted
- Recognize and acknowledge risk taking.
Storming / Control
- Emphasize, contribute to, highlight cooperative interdependence among members
- Encourage risk taking, engagement in trustworthy and trusting behaviors
- Expect / Accept rebellion, resistance
- Acknowledge, confront, negotiate constructively
- help members establish independence from one another
Norming / Performing / Affection
- Raise awareness of group’s interactional patterns
- Facilitate members committing themselves to the group’s purpose and taking ownership for group’s goals and procedures
- Support the accomplishment of both task and maintenance
Adjourning / Transforming
- Normalize ending process
- Expect a myriad of feelings and behaviors (regression) both amplified and dulled.
- Maintain curiosity about relationship of these to loss.
- If continuing, redefine, new purpose, new structures, etc.
Source: ABS PowerPoint presentation, and “Group Development curriculum, Stage Appropriate Support and Intervention”
(Adapted from Johnson and Johnson, 2000, Weber, R. 1982)