The Johari Window (Luft & Ingham)

Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham, 1955



Known to self

Unknown to self




Known to others



Unknown to others


The four panes of the window represent the following:
  • Open: The open area is that part of our conscious self – our attitudes,
    behavior, motivation, values, way of life – of which we are aware and
    which is known to others. We move within this area with freedom. We
    are “open books”.
  • Hidden: Our hidden area cannot be known to others unless we
    disclose it. There is that which we freely keep within ourselves, and that
    which we retain out of fear. The degree to which we share ourselves
    with others (disclosure) is the degree to which we can be known.
  • Blind: There are things about ourselves which we do not know, but
    that others can see more clearly; or things we imagine to be true of
    ourselves for a variety of reasons but that others do not see at all.
    When others say what they see (feedback), in a supportive, responsible
    way, and we are able to hear it; in that way we are able to test the
    reality of who we are and are able to grow.
  • Unknown: We are more rich and complex than that which we and
    others know, but from time to time something happens – is felt, read,
    heard, dreamed – something from our unconscious is revealed.  Then we
    “know” what we have never “known” before.



Primary Goals sits at the intersection of three core ideas about communication:
  • Leaders create vision by communicating a compelling future to their teams.
  • Teams create success based on how effectively the communicate and coordinate with each other.
  • Entrepreneurial ventures are successful only when they communicate value to people with a concern that the business can take care of
In all cases, it’s about Conversations for Committed Results.  That’s our Primary Goal.  



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